[Speex-dev] Speex echo canceller on TI C55 DSP

Jim Crichton jim.crichton at comcast.net
Mon May 8 17:05:43 PDT 2006

> I've just been made aware of these problems (look for the thread "speex
> echo cancellation limitations"). It's on my short-term TODO list.

I saw the other thread, my problems happened in different (but similar) 

>> If fftwrap.c, I ifdefed out the spx_fft_float and spx_ifft_float 
>> routines,
>> because there were not used and required smallft.c (which is not so small 
>> at
>> all) to be added to the build.
> Right, need to cleanup that part...
>> With these changes, the link was successful, using testecho.c with some
>> modifications for the C55 environment.  The code and data memory
>> requirements were a lot more than I had hoped (>20kbytes of dynamic data
>> memory for block size=128, tail length = 1024), and I will probably not 
>> be
>> able to fit it in the production build without some trimming.
> Yes, there may be a bit of memory reduction possible here. Of course,
> decreasing the tail length is also a rather easy way.
>> When I run the build, it goes into an infinite loop in FLOAT_DIV32 (mdf.c
>> line 660), which occurs because adapt_rate is < 0, which happens when
>> FLOAT_EXTRACT16 gets the input {0x7ff0, 0xfffb}.  The rounding is causing
>> the result to go negative.  I worked around this by changing
> I think that was mentioned in the previous thread...
>>       return (a.m+(1<<(-a.e-1)))>>-a.e;
>> to
>>       return (((spx_uint16_t) a.m)+(1<<(-a.e-1)))>>-a.e;
> Is that sufficient to remove all the overflows at this place?

The rounding takes the value to exactly 0x8000, and it is followed by a 
right shift, so you just need to avoid the sign extension.

>> I have not had time to trace this, but it looks like a similar problem,
>> where the result of MULT16_32_Q15(M_1,r) is negative, and 
>> bombs.  Maybe the best thing to do next is to instrument the routines in
>> pseudofloat.h which have loops, but I will not get to that for a day or 
>> two.
> Yeah, r is never supposed to be negative and the float routines assume
> that.

No, it was a divide by zero, as explained in my second post.  I will try a 
build on the C6x DSP to see if this is a 16 vs. 32-bit problem.  I sent the 
test files off-list.

>> 1.  speex_echo_state_init takes about 20M instructions, which is a little
>> frightening,
> That's the fft initialization that calls a lot of float cos() functions.
> If you have a fixed version of cos() you can use it there, otherwise a
> fixed table (for a certain size) would work.
>> and the calls to speex_echo_cancel take about 630K instructions
>> for 128 samples.  Given your recent experience with the fixed point
>> canceller, does this sound rational?  The MIPs for the canceller are 
>> similar
>> to the MIPs for the encoder running 8kbps, complexity 1.
> The order of magnitude seems right. It may be possible to reduce that a
> bit, though. If you have an optimized FFT, you could replace kiss_fft
> with it and get a big improvement right there.

Yeah, but then I have to try to actually understand the algorithm.  I am not 
sure that those brain cells are still alive.

>> 2.  The testecho example uses a frame length and tail size that are 
>> powers
>> of two (128, 1024).  Are there any implications to using sizes which are 
>> not
>> powers of two?  It would be most convenient to use the encoder frame size
>> (160), and some multiple of that for the tail size.  How does the frame 
>> size
>> affect performance (I understand that the tail length determines what 
>> echo
>> signals are cancelable)?
> Non powers of two will be a bit slower because of the FFT, but that's
> all. I made sure the echo canceller works with 160, precisely because
> it's the frame size used by Speex. Note that I don't recommend using
> frames more than 20 ms long (at any sampling rate).
>> 3.  Do you have any suggestions for code/data memory reduction for the
>> canceller, other than to make the tail length no longer than necessary 
>> (this
>> is a line echo canceller for a local phone, so I should be able to keep 
>> it
>> to 40ms).  I was surprised by the size of the FFT code, but I guess that 
>> it
>> is doing much more than the radix2 version in the TI library.
> The FFT code has more than just the radix two, so you can save there. It
> wasn't meant to be an optimized FFT, so if TI supplies you with one,
> it's probably a good idea to use it (that's what fft_wrap is for). Also,
> given that the memory use is almost directly proportional to the tail
> length, reducing that one to 40 ms will make a huge difference.

Thanks for the advice.

- Jim 

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